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Eczema is a condition that causes the skin to become itchy and inflamed (swollen). A rash develops that may appear purple, brown or grey in darker skin tones and red in lighter skin tones. It is possible to have more than one type of eczema – each form of eczema has its own set of triggers and treatment requirements.1a,b

Learn here all about eczema, and how to best manage your symptoms.

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What is eczema?

There are many different types of eczema, by far the most common being atopic dermatitis.3a

  • Eczema is a common allergic skin condition with many patients also suffering from asthma, hay fever, and food allergies.2b,3b
  • Eczema usually begins in early childhood before the age of 5 and can persist into adolescence and adulthood.2c,3c
  • There is no cure for eczema – treatments can relieve symptoms and help prevent flare-ups.4a
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What are the symptoms?

  • Dry skin
  • Itchy skin
  • Thickened, cracked and scaly skin
  • Raw, sensitive and swollen skin from scratching
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Where on the body does eczema occur?

Children and infants2d

  • scalp
  • knees
  • elbows
  • cheeks


  • creases of the wrists
  • elbows
  • knees
  • ankles
  • face and neck

Itch-scratch cycle2e

  • rubbing or scratching the skin causes more irritation, and therefore, additional itching.
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What causes eczema?

When the skin is healthy, it performs an especially important function – it retains moisture and acts as a barrier to protect you from bacteria, irritants and allergens.4c

When a person has eczema, the skin’s ability to function in this protective manner is compromised, this allows the skin to be affected by various environmental triggers, including food allergies.4c

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How it works

Eczema is thought to be caused by a “leaky” skin barrier. This means water escapes leaving the skin dry. Some people have this leaky skin gene passed down from parents or it is driven by factors in the environment such as:2h

  • pollen
  • house dust mite
  • animal dander
  • detergents
  • soaps
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Who suffers from eczema?

Children and adults with a family history of eczema, allergies or asthma have increased risk of suffering from eczema during childhood and into adulthood.4d

People with eczema can often also suffer from the following problems:4e

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It is important to try and identify and avoid the triggers that irritate the skin and worsen eczema symptoms. Triggers that can worsen the skin reaction include:2f

  • Sweat
  • Stress
  • Obesity
  • Soaps
  • Detergents, chemicals
  • Dust
  • Pollen
  • Smoke
  • Fragrances
  • Certain fabrics
  • Certain foods (eggs, milk, soy and wheat)
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Treating eczema

The ultimate goal of treatment is to improve quality of life and ensure participation in school, work, sport and social activities.2g

There are 3 basic principles for the effective management of eczema are:4a

When there is a lot of redness and swelling, applying creams or ointments that help reduce the inflammation are useful. Topical creams, ointments and lotions are applied directly to the skin.2i

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Topical steroids

  • Steroids are anti-inflammatory medications used on the red and swollen areas of the rash
  • Topical steroids come in different strengths
  • A stronger or more potent steroid may clear the rash quicker but cannot be used in senstive areas like the face or underarms
  • OTC topical steroids are usually less potent than prescription steroids
  • Topical steroids are usually used as a first option
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Other treatment options include:

  • Immune modulating creams2k
  • Antihistamines tablets and syrups (not creams)2l
  • Wet wraps2m
  • Antibiotics if skin is infected2m
  • Allergy injections2n
  • Other stress-relieving therapies2m

A pharmacist, doctor or specialist can help identify which type of eczema you may have and how best to treat and prevent flare-ups.2o

Ask your pharmacist or doctor for the right treatment for your condition.

Medical References

  1. National Eczema Association. An Overview of the Different Types of Eczema. Available online at: https://nationaleczema.org/eczema/types-of-eczema/ Accessed October 2020.
  2. American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAI) Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Overview [28 September 2019]. Available at: https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/eczema-atopic-dermatitis Accessed October 2020.
  3. National Eczema Association. Types of Eczema: Atopic Dermatitis. Available online at: https://nationaleczema.org/eczema/types-of-eczema/atopic-dermatitis/ Accessed October 2020.
  4. Atopic Dermatitis. Mayo Clinic. Available online at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/atopic-dermatitis-eczema/symptoms-causes/syc-20353273 Accessed October 2020.
  5. Contact Dermatitis. Mayo Clinic. Available online at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/contact-dermatitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20352742 Accessed October 2020.
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